LUKE 5

STUDY MATERIAL

 

  • Luke 5

  • 5: 1 - 11 Jesus calls disciples

  • Luke 5: 12-16 Jesus Cleanses a Leper (also Mt 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45)

  • Luke 5:17-26 Jesus heals Paralysis (also Mt 9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12)

  • Luke 5:27-32 Levi/Matthew’s Call (also Mt 9:9-13; Mark 2:13-17)

  • Luke 5:33-39 Jesus’ Early Teachings

 

 
Jesus Calls Disciples

 

LUKE 5:1 In the morning, a crowd followed Jesus to a beach near Capernaum. The Sea of Galilee is also Lake Gennesaret.

 

LUKE 5:2 The two boats belonged to Peter and his partners, James and John the sons of Zebedee and Salome. Their “fishing nets” were very heavy casting nets. The unsuccessful fishermen must have been exhausted and discouraged as they go through the laborious work of cleaning and folding their linen threaded nets.

 

LUKE 5:3 Jesus would have sat in the back of the boat while Peter walked beside the front pushing it out into the shallow waters. I presume Peter and his partners listened to Jesus teach the crowd. Jesus had already visited Peter and healed his family (4:38), so asking him to use his boat seems reasonable. Peter must have grown his faith and meekly received advise on fishing from a builder.

 

LUKE 5:4-6 Jesus now offers a miracle with broader power over creation. Luke selects miracles that grow in their scope and power (fulfilling Jesus’ mission as announced at the Nazareth synagogue from Isaiah 61:1). Luke starts with protection through invisibility;

 

LUKE4:33-35 casting out devil; 4:38-39 healing Peter’s mother-in-law’s fever, power over the deep, healing permanent conditions of leprosy and paralysis, and forgiving sins.

 

  • Deep—echoing creation (Gen 1:2); the path for the ransomed (Isa 51:10); the depths of the earth hold the dead who need redemption (Ezekiel 26:19-20; Romans 10:7), depths pose danger (Psalms 69:2; Amos 9:3).

 

* Nets—The linen threads that are woven into 25’ circular casting nets, snap and pop under the fishes’ weight. The image of a breaking net alludes to snapping off each thread of the Devil’s net that bound us as we come unto Christ.

 

LUKE 5:7 This catch of a lifetime could provide income to sustain the families of the newly called apostles. Just 4.5 miles south is the town of Magdala/Taricheae where they dried or smoked fish. We assume the families took the catch of fish there to sell. Peter’s partners probably included his brother Andrew as well as James and John. Their working together foreshadows the unified team of Apostles as well. The boats in that area were 4 ½ ft deep and still sinking with a load of fish.

 

LUKE 5:8 Both names for Peter are used only here in Luke. Luke highlights Peter who falls at Jesus’ feet as the first called apostle (St. John has himself and Andrew, Jn 1:40). Imagine the chaos of tugging the nets into the boat with all the wriggling fish. The miracle is in the timing! I love seeing Peter’s humility as He worships Jesus. This vs also speaks of the need for disciples to be cleansed and live worthy lives to follow the Lord. Yet the Lord calls sinners.

 

LUKE 5:9-10 Astonishment or “Fear seized him” as this miracle is tailor-made for Peter! Luke points specifically to the 3 chef apostles as eyewitness’. Jesus observes their fear and commands, “fear not” (one of the most repeated commandments throughout Luke). The Lord gives them a grand catch before calling them to grander things.

 

LUKE 5:11 immediately they respond to the Lord’s call to serve, and left their catch with others. The Lord asks us to forsake our sins to follow and serve Him as well.  As a side note, the Lord has provided for the apostle’s families by first healing Grandma, and now fish provided income for the next three years (D&C 118:3; 49:21).

 
Luke 5:12-16 Jesus Cleanses a Leper (also Mt 8:2-4; Mk 1:40-45)

 

LUKE 5:12 “One of the cities,” suggests that the unclean man had come into an area where he shouldn’t. Especially in the advanced stage of “full of leprosy.” (As a physician, I presume Luke knew much of leprosy.) He falls at Jesus’ feet with great faith, as did Peter (5:8). Old Testament Mosaic Law stresses “Clean and Unclean” in Leviticus13:45 (1-46); 14:2-3; Num 5:2; etc. Rabbi’s put bans on Lepers as the most unclean (next to the dead). They could not go into a walled city. If they were on a road they must stay at least 6 feet away from others and call out “unclean” loudly. Leprosy was known as “living death” (read Talmage p. 199 description).It was believed incurable once seated in the blood, and this man had the worst form of it (“full of leprosy”).Rabbi’s required Lepers to dress as mourners with a black cloak completely covering all their body, most of their face, with “disheveled hair.”Rabbi’s taught that 11 specific sins brought about Leprosy.

 

LUKE 5:13 Jesus violates the letter of the Law by touching the unclean, while keeping the spirit of the Law by healing him.Jesus send him to a priest to be pronounced clean by under the Law of Moses.

 

LUKE 5:14 Jesus honors the Law by complying with the details of a priest pronouncing the cleansing pure (Lev 14:2-3). Where else did you see Luke’s respect of the law in the nativity narratives? (Luke 1-2, Z + E + M + young Jesus).

 

LUKE 5:16 If Jesus needed spiritual rejuvenation, SO DO WE! Find your “wilderness” or place to pray.

 

 

Luke 5:17-26 Jesus heals Paralysis (also Mt 9:2-8; Mk 2:1-12)

 

5:17 Pharisees (Josephus identifies a group of 6,000, who emphasized Sabbath and dietary laws), and teachers attack Jesus. Small houses were 9’ X 12,’ medium were 12’ X 15’, and larger homes had rooms surrounding a courtyard. Often an outside stairwell led to the flat roof where you could work or sleep in warm weather.

 

     Roof: There were outside and inside stairs that lead up to the roof, as well as “the road of the roofs” passing from roof to roof if the house adjoined others in the same street. Many Galilean roofs were hard beaten earth with rubble underneath it, with paved brick, stone, or any other hard substance and surrounded by a balustrade which was at least 3’ high. The roof over the courtyard would have been covered with a lighter frame work which supported the tiles. Roman tiled homes have also been unearthed in Palestine.

 

 LUKE 5:18 The paralyzed man had friends with great faith+ determination! A great example in doing all we can to reach God

 

LUKE 5:19 The Greek word for “before the Lord” is used “almost as a technical term in temple worship” and when Moses stood before the Lord (p.290). The speaks of a sacred setting. I wonder how disruptive the scene must have been?

 

LUKE 5:20  Faith propels this miracle. Jesus heals in the “psychological order;” inward thoughts first before outward (remember some Jews thought ever illness came from a sin).  The healings spoke of His Divine Personality.

 

LUKE 5:21-22 Reading other’s thoughts is another miracle and sign that Jesus is God. The word for “power” is also authority. *Note again the similarities with the Devil’s temptation, now from the questioning leaders “if…if…if thou be...”

 

LUKE 5:23-4 The JST helps, “Does it require more power to forgive sins than to make the sick rise . . .” which immediately happens proving Jesus has power over both. His healing is even shown to provide strength to carry his stretcher!

 

 

Luke 5:27-32 Levi/Matthew’s call (also Mt 9:9-13; Mark 2:13-17)

 

LUKE 5:27 The Lord “observed” Levi/Matthew possibly at the custom’s post on the main road just east of Capernaum, on the border of Herod Antipas and Philip’s territories (2 miles west of where the Jordan River meets the Sea of Galilee). Luke calls him Levi, but Matthew (“gift of God”), calls him, “Matthew the Publican.”

 

*Tax Collector: Usually, publicans were despised and listed with harlots and sinners (Mt 18:17). Because some were dishonest, none were allowed to be witnesses or judge. Their positions were leased from the government and lived on the excess that they collected.  “Theocritus was asked, ‘what are the worst wild animals?’ and he answered, ‘On the mountains, bears, and lions; in the city, publicans’ . . . The Jews had a proverb, ‘Take not a wife out of a family where there is a publican, for they are all publicans’” (Farrar p.188).

 

*Roman Taxes: 1) Ground tax: 1/10% of your ground production (ie. grain, wine) paid either in kind or $;

2) Income-tax amounted to 1%; 3) Poll-tax or head-money was levied on all men over 14-65, and girls 12-65.

 

Taxes were paid on all imports and exports, all that was bought and sold, toll roads, bridge money, town dues, admission to markets, harbor dues, and ship toll. Taxes ranged from 2 ½-12 ½ % .  The price was nothing compared to the hassle of constantly being stopped, unloading your pack animals, every bale and package opened, contents counted, private letters opened, etc. There was plenty of room for favors (Edersheim, 514?)

 

LUKE 5:28 describes Levi, just as P, J and J, “forsaking all.” Disciples must be willing to leave all to follow Christ (and still must listen and obey His Spirit and servants). Levi as a publican would have had to brake his contract

 

LUKE 5:29-30 Jesus is the guest of honor and “reclines” to eat at the feast Levi /Matthew provides. (Later Pharisaic Jewish laws forbad eating with publicans, p. 296). After the meal, the self-righteous confront Jesus’ disciples about eating with unclean publicans. Eating with “clean” people (male guests ate with men only) was especially important--because eating with someone was the same as if you were covenanting with them or at least shared values with them as you dipped together in the same dish (sharing germs)

5:31-32 These two statements are cited in the synoptic gospels. We also find them in reverse order as statements from Jesus quoted in Mormon 8:8. None of us are “whole” without the Lord’s atonement making up the difference.

 

 

Luke 5:33-39 Jesus’ Early Teachings

 

LUKE 5:33 The audience appears to still be the publicans and scribes, but in the Gospel of Matthew it is JBst’s disciples. Yet Jesus also speaks so that his new disciples will understand that he is not intending to reform the old Law, but calls for a completely new or fresh restoration. The call for fasting would return after Jesus’ death. (Don’t get hung up on order of stories as each Gospel. It’s like a patchwork squares to create a different overall design.

 

LUKE 5:34-35 Jesus uses the “bridegroom / bride” for imagery for God and Zion as we find in the OT too. The analogy is built on throughout the NT in parables and sermons (including the Book of Revelation).

 

LUKE 5:36 A new patch was “un-shrunk” and would pull away as it shrinks and tear or stretch at the seams.  Matthew uses the word, “pleroun / to fulfill” speaking of the fulfillment of the Law of Moses in Christ.

 

LUKE 5:37 New or “fresh grape juice” was kept in animal skins, so they were only flexible enough for fermentation when new.  Christ is symbolically the new wine and must be received with a flexible, soft, heart.

Old and New Wine and Bottles = Old Law and New

LUKE 6

STUDY MATERIAL

 

 

  • Luke 6

    • 6:1-2 Pharisee obsession with Sabbath Oral Laws

    • 6:3-4 Jesus practices the laws of “gleaning” (Lev 23:22)

    • Luke 6:6-11 Jesus Heals on the Sabbath 

    • Luke 6:12 Jesus calls the Twelve Apostles

      • Matt 10: 2-4

      • Mark 3: 13-19

      • Luke 6:14-16

    • Luke 6:17-49 Sermon on the Plain

      • Luke 6: 17-27 Part 1: Changes between this life and the life to come. 

      • Luke 6: 27-38 Part 2: Love God by loving as God loves. 

      • Luke 6: 39-49

 

TEXT
 

LUKE 6: 1-5 LORD OF THE SABBATH

6:1-2  Pharisees were obsessed with Sabbath Oral Laws. This may be why Luke deliberately mentions “sabbath” nearly twenty times in his Gospel alone. Our generation has the opposite challenge, few people or religions prioritize honoring the Sabbath as a Holy Day.

 

6:3-4 Jesus practices the laws of “gleaning” (Lev 23:22). His example of King David is from 1 Sam 21.

 

6:5 Although 3 Gospels include parts, only Luke emphasizes Jesus’ divinity: “Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath.”

 

 

 

LUKE 6: 6-11 JESUS HEALS ON SABBATH

 

Luke 6:6

One-third of the twenty-six specific healings listed in the Gospels occurred on the Sabbath. This upset the Pharisees.

 

The Mishnah, Shabbath,  7:2, enumerated “forty save one” basic types of work forbidden on the Sabbath:

 

(1) sowing, (2) ploughing, (3) reaping, (4) binding sheaves, (5) threshing, (6) winnowing, (7) cleansing crops, (8) grinding, (9) sifting, (10) kneading, (11) baking, (12) shearing wool, (13) washing, (14) beating, (15) dyeing, (16) spinning, (17) weaving, (18) making two loops, (19) weaving two threads, (20) separating two threads, (21) tying [a knot], (22) loosening [a knot], (23) sewing two stitches, (24) tearing in order to sew two stitches, (25) hunting a gazelle, (26) slaughtering or (27) flaying or (28) salting, (29) curing its skin, (30) scraping it or, (31) cutting it up, (32) writing two letters, (33) erasing in order to write two letters, (34) building, (35) pulling down, (36) putting out fire, (37) lighting fire, (38) striking with the hammer, and (39) taking aught from one domain into another.

 

Rabbis elaborate on the thirty-nine banned labors and micromanage the details. Below you will find examples:

 

You could not carry a handful of straw, a dried fig’s bulk of foodstuff, a piece of leather, etc. (Mishnah, Shabbath, 7:4; 8:3).

 

To protect against plowing or cultivate the dirt, one could spit on a rock on the Sabbath, but not on the dirt (ibid., 7:2).           

 

 

 

 

 

 

CALLING THE TWELVE APOSTLES

 

 

 Luke 6:12 Luke alone includes details about Jesus praying all night on a mountain before calling His apostles the next day.

 

Several Sabbath laws dealt specifically with healing.

If one dislocated a joint or broke a bone on the Sabbath, the oral laws forbade setting a fracture because once in place the victim’s body would work to heal itself, thus breaking the Sabbath!(ibid., 22:6)

One could take out a thorn with “a sewing-needle” as long as the needle was not used for sewing (ibid., 17:2).

 

Certain foods, like Greek hyssop, were often used for medicinal purposes, so they made a law to note cook with it on the Sabbath as it might be a means of healing (ibid., 14:3).

 

Ironically, Rabbi Meir gave permission to use certain cures on the Sabbath: “a nail of one that was crucified” to cure a festering wound, or a locust’s egg to cure an earache, or a jackal’s tooth to cure sleepiness (if the jackal was alive) and sleeplessness (if the jackal was dead). Ibid., 6:10).

Luke 6:8a

Luke repeatedly points out the Lord’s actions or "doing" on the Sabbath. I think Jesus deliberately broke their “oral Sabbath laws” while honoring the Mosaic Sabbath Law (Ex 20:8). Luke alone adds, “He knew their thoughts.”

Luke 6:8b-11

He gets everyone’s attention by having the disabled man stand in the middle of the synagogue to receive his healing. Jesus’ benchmark for appropriate Sabbath actives is if it does good and saves lives. I fear our generation is on the opposite spectrum of the Pharisees of his day. LDS have been called to reexamine our Sabbath observance. We can fine-tune by asking the question, is this a “good, better, or best” thing to do on the Sabbath

 

 

Luke uses the title, “Apostles / One sent on a mission,” regularly in his Gospel (unlike Matthew, who calls the Twelve Apostles, “disciples” every time, except when they are called, just as 3 Nephi does).

 

Mark gives us the most details on the call of the Apostles (consistent with the tradition that it was Peter’s memoires).

Mark 3:14; “He ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach, And to have the power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils.” 

 

 

 

 ​​LUKE 6:17-49 THE SERMON ON THE PLAN

 

We are more familiar with Jesus’ “Sermon on the Mount,” which is 2 chapters longer (Matt 5-7). The setting, audience, and text is changed in the “Sermon on the Plan.” I see the overlap and repetition as significant and also supporting Jesus’ repetition in 3 Nephi. These were the foundation of His Gospel’s restored higher laws.

 

*Audience: is no longer just the apostles (which Matt 5:1 calls disciples), but now a multitude gathered in Galilee from the Mediterranean, Jerusalem, and Judea. Perhaps this is why the content changes.

(*Audience is large in Luke, only 12 in Matthew--NTCL missed this important detail, 351.)

 

Part 1: Changes between this Life and the Life to Come

 

LUKE 6:17-22 We only have 4 of the 8 beatitudes included here (meek, merciful, pure, and peacemakers are added in Matt). Kent Brown points out “the poor” may have referred to the Disciples who are “poor in Spirit” (parallels Matt 5).

 

LUKE 6:23-26 Jesus (or Luke’s recording) looks to the next life were opposites will abound. He parallels 4 woes (possibly remembered this way for easier memorization). The only reward will come in heaven.

I see the last two parts of the Sermon on the Plain building off the two greatest commandments of the OT (also the 10 Commandments are divided into the same 2 sections, as well as, Matthew’s 8 beatitudes). See Lev 19:18; Deut 6:5.

 ​​LUKE 6:17-49 THE SERMON ON THE PLAIN

 

We are more familiar with Jesus’ “Sermon on the Mount,” which is 2 chapters longer (Matt 5-7). The setting, audience, and text is changed in the “Sermon on the Plan.” I see the overlap and repetition as significant and also supporting Jesus’ repetition in 3 Nephi. These were the foundation of His Gospel’s restored higher laws.

 

*Audience: is no longer just the apostles (which Matt 5:1 calls disciples), but now a multitude gathered in Galilee from the Mediterranean, Jerusalem, and Judea. Perhaps this is why the content changes.

(*Audience is large in Luke, only 12 in Matthew--NTCL missed this important detail, 351.)

 

Part 1: Changes between this Life and the Life to Come

 

LUKE 6:17-22 We only have 4 of the 8 beatitudes included here (meek, merciful, pure, and peacemakers are added in Matt). Kent Brown points out “the poor” may have referred to the Disciples who are “poor in Spirit” (parallels Matt 5).

 

LUKE 6:23-26 Jesus (or Luke’s recording) looks to the next life were opposites will abound. He parallels 4 woes (possibly remembered this way for easier memorization). The only reward will come in heaven.

 

 

 

 

Part 2: Love God by Loving as God Does (i.e Love your enemies)

 

LUKE 6:27-28 Jesus’ higher law takes loving your neighbor to a new level. The word love is the noblest love, agapao, often translated as charity in KJV. Disciples are not only good to their friends and neighbors but also pray for their enemies who “despitefully use you” (JST harmonizes wording with Matt). Luke sees serious persecution as a missionary companion with Paul 15-30 years later.

 

LUKE 6:29-30 Generosity is essential in the Lord’s Law (even to robbers, the poor, the solicitors). A cloak or the outer garment is the most valuable piece of clothing. These acts of mercy speak of charity as Paul taught in 1 Cor 13. The verb used is a “lifelong pattern” (Kent Brown, 339).

 

LUKE 6:31-36 Doing good extends beyond colleagues, friends, and family to those who have hurt you and even the ungrateful, and those who “hate you.” Disciples of Jesus go beyond what is comfortable to sacrifice for others.

 

LUKE 6:37-38 The command to not judge is adapted in modern revelation to Judge righteously with the Spirit (Moroni 7:16; “ the Spirit of Christ is given to every man, that he may know good from evil; wherefore, I show unto you the way to judge.”) 

 

 
 

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